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Takayama, N., “Pension Reform: Global Solutions and Japanese Experiences,” (Chinese Version, translated by Dr. Xinmei Wang) China Financial & Economic Publishing House, June 2023, ISBN: 9787509568170, 277p.


Hinz, R., Holzmann, R., Tuesta, D. and Takayama, N. eds., “Matching Contributions for Pensions,” The World Bank, October 2012, ISBN: 9780821394922, 356p.

The use of matching contributions to enhance the participation and level of savings in pensions system has now been in use for nearly three decades in a number of high income countries. Increasingly, countries across the full range of economic development are looking to the design as a means of addressing the low rates of participation in formal pension and other retirement savings systems. A number of countries have recently introduced innovations in their pension systems that significantly rely on contributions matches and related types of direct subsidies to provide incentives for groups that mandates and other indirect methods such as preferential tax treatment have been unsuccessful in reaching. There is particular interest among developing countries in utilizing this design to extend coverage to informal sector and low income workers that typically do not pay income related taxes. This volume provides descriptions and analysis of the design, experience and outcomes achieved in the high income countries where there information about the dynamics and outcomes that this approach has achieved is not beginning to emerge. It also reviews new efforts to use the design in a number of other settings in which the matching contributions have been included as a significant element in reform of the pension system. The review of the experience with matching contribution across this full range of settings provides important observations and some initial lessons for policy makers and analysts who may be considering or evaluating the use of this approach to increase pension coverage.


Part I. Introduction and Conceptual Issues

1. Early Lessons from Country Experience with Matching Contribution Schemes 3
Robert Holzmann, Richard Hinz, and David Tuesta

2. Policies to Encourage Private Pension Savings: Evidence from OECD Countries 27
Edward Whitehouse

Part II. High-Income Country Experience

3. Matching Contributions in 401(k) Plans in the United States 53
Nevin Adams, Dallas Salisbury, and Jack VanDerhei

4. Riester Pensions in Germany: Design, Dynamics, Targeting Success, and Crowding-In 81
Axel Borsch-Supan, Michela Coppola, and Anette Reil-Held

5. New Zealand’s Experience with the KiwiSaver Scheme 103
Geoff Rashbrooke

6. The Impact of Matching on Savings in the U.K. Savings Gateway Program 133
Will Price

7. Matching Defined Contribution Pension Schemes in Japan 145
Noriyuki Takayama

8. Matching Contributions and Compliance in Korea’s National Pension Program 161
Hyungpyo Moon

Part III. Middle-Income Country Experience

9. Complementing Chile’s Pensions with Subsidized Youth Employment and Contributions 179
Hermann von Gersdorff and Paula Benavides

10. Matching Contributions in Colombia, Mexico, and Peru: Experiences and Prospects 193
Luis Carranza, Angel Melguizo, and David Tuesta

Part IV. Developing Country Experience

11. China’s Pension Schemes for Rural and Urban Residents 217
Mark C. Dorfman, Dewen Wang, Philip O’Keefe, and Jie Cheng

12. Learning from the Early Experience of India’s Matching Defined Contribution Scheme 243
Robert Palacios and Renuka Sane

13. Using Prepaid Contributions to Cover Mobile Workers in Cape Verde and Tunisia 261
Antoine Delarue

14. Thailand’s Matching Defi ned Contribution Programs for the Informal Sector 275
Mitchell Wiener

Part V. Behavioral and Design Issues

15. Matching Contributions and Savings Outcomes: A Behavioral Economics Perspective 289
Brigitte C. Madrian

16. Implementation Issues in Low- and Middle-Income Countries 311
Robert Palacios and Mike Orszag

Noriyuki Takayama ed. "Reforming Pensions for Civil and Military Servants" Published from Maruzen Co. Ltd., Tokyo, December 2011. JPY6,000 cloth, ISBN 978-4-621-08469-4

Pensions date back to the Roman Empire more than 2,000 years ago. Despite their long history, pensions for civil and military servants have attracted less attention in academic circles so far than those for workers in the private sector. However, in an environment of fiscal stringency and growing importance of inter- and intra-generational equity issues, pension arrangements for civil and military servants currently face many challenges.

This volume provides a compilation of updated versions of the nine papers presented at the seminar on Reforming Pensions for Civil and Military Servants, held in Tokyo in January, 2011. Chapter 1 offers an up-to-date overview of pension schemes for civil and military servants in OECD countries. Chapters 2 to 9 contain analyses of civil service and military pensions in selected countries, including Australia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Singapore, the United Kingdom, and the United States. It covers key design features of pension schemes, parametric and/or systemic reforms undertaken or contemplated, and their rationale.

It is hoped that, taken together, the studies compiled in this volume will help to further the understanding of the nature of pensions for civil and military servants in countries around the world, the challenges they face, and options for reforms.


Chapter 1: Pension Schemes for Public-Sector Workers: An International Perspective                
Edward Whitehouse
Chapter 2: Civil Services and Military Retirement Income Provision in Australia 
Hazel Bateman and John Piggott
Chapter 3: Civil Service and Military Service Pensions in China 
Stuart H. Leckie
Chapter 4: Civil Service and Military Pensions in India        
Renuka Sane and Ajay Shah
Chapter 5: Civil Service and Military Pension Reforms in Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore
Mukul G. Asher and Azad Singh Bali
Chapter 6: Civil Service Pension Arrangements in Japan     
Junichi Sakamoto
Chapter 7: Pension Systems for Public Sector Employees in the Republic of Korea  
Jae-Kyeong Kim and Hyung-Pyo Moon
Chapter 8: Public Service Pension Reform in the United Kingdom
Tamara Finkelstein and Joe Perkins
Chapter 9: State and Local Pensions in the United States
Robert L. Clark

Noriyuki Takayama ed. "Priority Challenges in Pension Administration" Published from Maruzen Co. Ltd., Tokyo, January 2011. JPY8,000 cloth, ISBN 978-4-621-08345-1

Pension administration currently faces many challenges. First, certain population groups such as the self-employed, atypical workers, the unemployed, migrant workers and workers in small businesses present specific administrative difficulties to social security institutions, in terms of contribution collection, enforcement of compliance, and combating contribution evasion. Second, there is considerable need for debate on current innovations in ICT and their impact on the organization of pension administration. Third, information management and data quality are of utmost importance not only to ensure appropriate financial flows and correct benefit payments, but also to maintain the social legitimacy of pension schemes and social security administrations. Fourth, growing demands on customer-oriented services, the increased need to legitimize and inform the public on pension programs as well as the development of new communication technologies have created new pressures and opportunities.

Taken together, new developments in the area of ICT, socio-economic changes, and new client needs require pension administrations to take a proactive approach in order to anticipate future administrative challenges and prepare solutions for them. Yet, generally speaking, academic circles have paid insufficient attention to the implementation issues raised by these major developments.

This volume is devoted to addressing priority challenges in pension administration. It presents a basic framework for better pension implementation by demonstrating five core requirements for a viable pension system, identifying several basic key elements in any effective system for collecting social security contributions. It also contains reports on selected countries, including Brazil, Canada, Denmark, Germany, Japan, Korea, the Netherlands, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States, and attempts to clarify future administrative challenges. Through in-depth discussions on national experiences, good practice and lessons learnt, this volume provides useful and insightful details on innovations and solutions currently applied in a variety of countries.


Chapter 1: Collection of Social Contributions: Current Practice and Critical Issues
Stanford G. Ross

Chapter 2: The Use of Information and Communication Technologies to Improve Public Service Delivery and Recognition of Citizen Rights in Brazil
Rodrigo Ortiz D'Avila Assumpcao

Chapter 3: Customer-oriented Services and Information: Enhancing Public Pension Awareness in Canada and Why it Matters
Dominique La Salle

Chapter 4: Effective and Efficient ICT Strategies to Support Pension Administration in Denmark
Carsten Bodal and Anders Schmidt Hansen

Chapter 5: Extending Pension Coverage in Germany: The Employment Insurance Approach
Markus Sailer

Chapter 6: Pension Record-keeping Problems in Japan
Noriyuki Takayama

Chapter 7: Improving the Administration of Problem Groups in the National Pension System: The Case of Korea
Seong Sook Kim

Chapter 8: Focus on Client Orientation: Service Delivery of the Dutch State Pensionsy
Luc Boss

Chapter 9: Customer-oriented Services and Information: Experiences from Sweden
Paul Larsson, Arne Paulsson and Annika Sunden

Chapter 10: National Insurance Administration in the UK
Ian MacDonald

Chapter 11: Ensuring Appropriate Information Management and Data Quality at the United States Social Security Administration
Jerry Berson

Chapter 12: Recent Developments in the Collection of Social Contributions
Stanford G. Ross

Chapter 13: The Collection of Pension Contributions: A Comparative Review of Three Central European Countries
Tine Stanovnik

Chapter 14: An Analysis of Provident and Pension Fund Administration in Selected Asian Countries
Mukul Asher

Chapter 15: Future Challenges in Pension Administration
Chris Gibbon

Noriyuki Takayama and Martin Werding eds. "FERTILIY AND PUBLIC POLICY: How to Reverse the Trend of Declining Birth Rates" Published from the MIT Press, 2011. $35.00/£25.95 cloth, ISBN 978-0-262-01451-9, CESifo Seminar series

In 2050, world population growth is predicted to come almost to a halt. Shortly thereafter it may well start to shrink. A major reason behind this shift is the fertility decline that has taken place in many developed countries. In this book, experts discuss the appropriateness and effectiveness of using public policy to influence fertility decisions. Contributors discuss the general feasibility of public interventions in the area of fertility, analyze fertility patterns and policy design in such countries as Japan, South Korea, China, Germany, Sweden, and France, and offer theoretical analyses of parental fertility choices that provide an overview of a broad array of child-related policy instruments in a number of OECD and EU countries.

CONTRIBUTORS: Gunnar Andersson, Reiko Aoki, Shalhevet Attar-Schwartz, Jonathan Bradshaw, Yoonyoung Cho, Alessandro Cigno, Tamotsu Kadoda, Yoko Konishi, Seiritsu Ogura, Xizhe Peng, Warren Sanderson, Noriyuki Takayama, Olivier Thevenon, and Martin Werding


Chapter 1: Fertility and Public Policy: An Introduction
Noriyuki Takayama and Martin Werding

Chapter 2: The Economics of the Family and Its Policy Implications: Why Should We Care about Fertility Outcomes?
Martin Werding

Chapter 3: Low Fertility and Population Aging in Germany and Japan: Prospects and Policies
Warren Sanderson

Chapter 4: Effects of Public Policies and the Labor Market on the Fertility of Japanese Women: Analyses of Municipal Data
Seiritsu Ogura and Tamotsu Kadoda

Chapter 5: On the Persistence of Low Birthrates in Japan
Reiko Aoki and Yoko Konishi

Chapter 6: An Evaluation of a Pronatal Subsidy in Korea: A Quasi-experimental Approach
Yoonyoung Cho

Chapter 7: Fertility Transition and Its Socioeconomic Impacts in China
Xizhe Peng

Chapter 8: Fertility and Social Policy
Jonathan Bradshaw and Shalhevet Attar-Schwartz

Chapter 9: Family Policies and Fertility in Sweden
Gunnar Andersson

Chapter 10: Does Fertility Respond to Work and Family-life Reconciliation Policies in France?
Olivier Thevenon

Chapter 11: Given That People Live Longer, Why Should We Worry That Fewer Are Born?
Alessandro Cigno

『年金と子ども手当』 岩波書店、2010年3月刊. ISBN978-4-00-009917-2
(定価 3200円/税別)






第1章 日本における年金記録問題
第2章 諸外国における年金記録問題と税・社会保険料の一体徴収
第3章 基礎年金の見直し−税方式化と最低保障年金化をめぐって−
第4章 年金の2009年財政検証に寄せて
第5章 子ども手当の導入効果

Holzmann, R., Robalino, D. and Takayama, N. eds. "Closing the Coverage Gap: Role of Social Pensions and Other Retirement Income Transfers," June 2009, World Bank. ISBN: 0-8213-7971-2  ISBN-13: 978-0-8213-7971-4   SKU: 17971

In high-income countries, the percent of the population covered under mandatory old-age pension programs is typically high but often incomplete; in low- and middle-income countries, coverage is low and even stagnant. At the same time, older people are less able to rely on family and community support as a result of growing urbanization and migration. And low-income workers and the poor simply cannot save enough to prepare for their old age. As a response, many countries are considering or have already implemented various forms of retirement income transfers aiming to guarantee a minimum level of income during old age. Despite the growing popularity of these programs, research assessing their success has been limited.

Closing the Coverage Gap: The Role of Social Pensions and Other Retirement Income Transfers brings together a group of renowned academics, policy analysts, and policy makers working in the area of pensions and public policy. They discuss how social pensions and other retirement income transfers can be used to close the coverage gap of mandatory pension systems: how they operate, when they can be appropriate, and how to make them work. The book reviews the experiences of low-, middle-, and high-income countries with the design and implementation of retirement income transfers. The book analyzes design issues related to financing, incentives, targeting mechanisms, and administration, and also identifies the role of promising instruments such as matching contributions to reach parts of the informal sector.


Chapter 1: Overview and Preliminary Policy Guidance
David A. Robalino and Robert Holzmann

Chapter 2: Measuring the Coverage Gap
Alvaro Forteza, Leonardo Luccheti, and Montserrat Pallares-Miralles

Chapter 3: Pensions and Old-Age Poverty
Stephen Kidd and Edward Whitehouse

Chapter 4: Rights-Based Approach to Social Security Coverage Expansion
Krzysztof Hagemejer

Chapter 5: Social Pensions in Low-Income Countries
Armando Barrientos

Chapter 6: Social Pensions in Four Middle-Income Countries
Mukul G. Asher

Chapter 7: Social Pensions in High-Income Countries
Mark Pearson and Edward Whitehouse

Chapter 8: Pension Coverage in Japan
Noriuki Takayama

Chapter 9: The Role of Social Pensions in the Republic of Korea
Hyungpyo Moon

Chapter 10: Incentive Effects of Retirement Income Transfers
John Piggot, David A. Robalino, and Sergi Jimenez-Martin

Chapter 11: Financing Social Pensions
Alain Jousten

Chapter 12: Defining Eligibility for Social Pensions: A View from a Social Assistance Perspective
Margaret Grosh and Phillippe Leite

Chapter 13: Matching Defined Contributions: A Way to Increase Pension Coverage
Robert Palacios and David A. Robalino

Chapter 14: Administration of Social Pension Programs
Oleksiy Sluchynsky

source and copyright holder: International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, The World Bank

Link to World Bank Publications

『少子化の経済分析』 東洋経済新報社、2006年12月刊. ISBN4-492-394-737
(定価 3600円/税別)





序章 少子化経済の課題と展望
第T部 少子化と雇用・賃金
第1章 国際比較からみた日本の少子化と少子化対策
第2章 少子化の経済的インパクト
第3章 企業における高齢者の活用
第4章 就業に関する中高年と若年の対立とその後
第5章 少結婚化と賃金・雇用制度
第U部 人口減少下の財政と金融
第6章 少子高齢化と財政収支・経常収支
第7章 世代間不均衡と財政改革
第8章 子育て支援と年金改革
第9章 人口減少経済と金融政策
第10章 少子高齢化と家計のポートフォリオ選択

Takayama, N. ed. "Pensions in Asia: Incentives, Compliance and Their Role in Retirement," Tokyo: Maruzen, February 2005. ISBN4-621-07566-7

 Asia is a region of demographic variety. Several Asian countries are currently experiencing a very rapid population ageing. The pension schemes in Asian countries face a big challenge under the population ageing.
There are some Asia-specific characteristics in pensions. First, many Asian countries have only a short history of social security pensions, and accordingly the issue of increasing pension coverage is still quite relevant in these countries. Second, pension programs are fairly different among Asian countries. Third, overall, the lump-sum retirement benefits have been very popular in Asia. Indeed, its mentality is still very persistent. In this sense, annuitization of retirement benefits now becomes all the more important in Asian countries.
This volume is devoted to searching for better old age income security in Asia. With an introductory chapter, it contains reports on major East, Southeast and South Asian countries, including China, Chinese Taipei (Taiwan), Hong Kong, India, Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand. Special concerns are given to incentives and compliance issues, along with the economic status of the elderly.

Pensions In Asia


Chapter 1 Public Pension Schemes: Labour Market and Compliance Issues by W. M. McGillivray
Chapter 2 A Macro Analysis of China Pension Pooling System: Financial Problem and Incentive Issuesby Vivian Y. Chen
Chapter 3 Taiwan: Compulsory Occupational Pensions Under Reform by Shean-Bii Chiu
Chapter 4 Retirement Income Protection in Hong Kong by Iris Chi
Chapter 5 Country Report: India by R. Vaidyanathan
Chapter 6 Reforming Social Security Pensions in Japan: A Balance Sheet Approach by Noriyuki Takayama
Chapter 7 The Past and Future of Korean Pension System: A Proposal for a Coordinated Development of Public-Private Pensions by Hanam S. Phang
Chapter 8 Malaysia: Pension & Financial Market Reforms and Key Issues on Governance by R. Thillainathan
Chapter 9 Retirement Financing in Singapore by Mukul G. Asher
Chapter 10 Pension Fund, Provident Fund and Social Security System in Thailand by Niwat Kanjanaphoomin

『信頼と安心の年金改革』 東洋経済新報社、2004年5月刊. ISBN4-492-70105-2
(定価 1500円/税別)







第T部 日本の公的年金改革
第1章 いま公的年金はどうなっている
第2章 2004年改正案の主要内容
第3章 2004年の改正案を検討する
第4章 年金制度の抜本改革
第U部 世界における最近の年金改革
第5章 スウェーデン
第6章 ドイツとフランス
第7章 チリ、シンガポール、オーストラリアなど
第V部 年金論争の10年間
第8章 民営化や積立方式への移行をめぐる年金論争
第W部 むすび
第9章 信頼と安心

『日本の経済制度・経済政策』 東洋経済新報社、2003年. ISBN4-492-39400-1




第1章 日本の金融制度 (池尾和人)
第2章 日本の金融政策 (斉藤 誠)
第3章 日本の財政政策 (井堀利宏・川出真清)
第4章 日本の財政投融資 (岩本康志)
第5章 日本の年金政策 (高山憲之)
第6章 日本の医療政策 (鴇田忠彦)
第7章 わが国における雇用政策の特徴とその推移 (樋口美雄)
第8章 日本の賃金制度と労働市場 (中村二朗・大橋勇雄)
第9章 日本型コーボレート・ガバナンス(星 岳雄)
第10章 日本の対外経済政策 (伊藤 隆敏)
第11章 日本の経済政策と経済研究とりわけ政策評価について (三輪芳朗・J.M. Ramseyer)

"Taste of Pie: Searching for Better Pension Provisions in Developed Countries," Tokyo: Maruzen, 2003. ISBN4-621-07227-7

The social security pension systems in developed countries are now quite unpopular, especially among the youth. Policymakers in these countries have been forced to reduce the generosity of the existing pay-as-you-go defined benefit pensions. Part of the lost benefits is replaced by pensions from funded defined contribution individual accounts, but many difficulties still remain. When it comes to social security pensions, by far the most important question is whether or not they are worth buying. For funded occupational and personal pensions, investment risk, increased administration costs, annuitization and distributional concerns are still major obstacles. Missing are better instruments to minimize risks involved in the funded system. No contributory pension scheme, public or private, PAYG or funded, DB or DC, can meet its objectives unless contributors comply. Contributors today are ultimately concerned with the taste of pie, rather than its size or its division. Are the pension provisions incentive-compatible? Is compliance effectively enforced? This volume is devoted to searching for better pension provisions in developed countries. It contains reports on major developed countries including Australia, Canada, Germany, Italy, Japan, Singapore, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States. It also deals with critical pension reform issues.

Taste of Pie


Part I Country Report
Chapter 1 The Australian Approach to Retirement Income Provision by Hazel Bateman and John Piggott
Chapter 2 Sustaining Public Pensions in Canada: A Tale of Two Reforms by Ken Battle
Chapter 3 A New Chapter in German Pension Policy: The "2001 Pension Reform" Based on a Paradigm Shift by Winfried Schmaehl
Chapter 4 Italy: The Search for a Sustainable PAYG Pension System by Daniele Franco
Chapter 5 Pension Arrangements in the Oldest Country: The Japanese Case by Noriyuki Takayama
Chapter 6 Singapore's Central Provident Fund: The Pitfalls of a Single Tier System by Mukul Asher and David Newman
Chapter 7 Pension Reform in Sweden by Edward Palmer
Chapter 8 The United Kingdom Pension System: Key Issues by David Blake
Chapter 9 New Trends in US Pensions by Olivia Mitchell
Part II Issues on Pension Reform
Chapter 10 Evaluating Fundamental Pension Reform in Japan and in the United States by Gary Burtless
Chapter 11 Ten Years of Public Pensions Reform by Warren R. McGillivray

『年金の教室──負担を分配する時代へ──』 PHP新書、2000年2月刊.





第1章 つのる不信・強まる不安
第2章 世代間の負担格差は縮小できるのか
第3章 財政方式の選択 ──積立方式への切りかえや民営化はどこまで有効か
第4章 基礎年金の財源調達 ──保険料徴収ベースを消費支出に切りかえよ
第5章 平均余命はさらに伸びる ──受給開始年齢の引き上げか拠出年数の延長か
第6章 女性と年金 ──専業主婦優遇批判を超えて
第7章 厚生年金基金の代行制度 ──廃止をもとめる民意を無視しつづけてよいのか
第8章 負担を分配する時代へ
参考1 だれでもわかる年金制度 ──現行制度の概要
参考2 1999年の年金改革法

The Morning After in Japan: Its Declining Population, Too Generous Pensions and a Weakened Economy," Tokyo: Maruzen, 1998. ISBN4-621-04542-3

In the late 1990's, the asset bubble in Japan finally burst. The party, so to speak, is now over. And as the "morning after" dawns, Japan is left with a population in decline, a disproportionately large cohort of pensioners, and an ailing economy with which to support them. As to when exactly the Japanese themselves will wake up to this situation remains an open question. This volume studies the economic consequences of a declining population and of too generous a benefit of the social security pension. It aims to deepen the public understanding as to how the present social security programs are working and whether or not the programs are sustainable. It clarifies the relative economic status of the elderly including those in extended family and of the active population, explains causes of a move towards early retirement and of higher labor force participation for the male elderly in Japan, identifies the main factors underlying the different employment status of married women, examines the wealth formation process throughout the life cycle including household saving behavior, and shows how bequest motivation has functioned in Japan.

The Morning After in Japan

ストック・エコノミー:資産形成と貯蓄・年金の経済分析』 東洋経済新報社、1992年

1980年代後半以降、日本の経済のストック経済化が急速に進んだ。しかし、資料の制約等もあり、個々の家計資産の実態はこれまで必ずしも明らかではなかった。本書は、『全国消費実態調査』をはじめとする各種のデータを縦横に駆使して、家計資産保有の実態、家計部門の消費・貯蓄行動、公的年金と貯蓄・就労の関係、税制の所得再分配機能、 を分析したものである。マイクロ・データを利用した日本で初めての本格的研究であり、日本経済研究に新機軸を切り拓いたものである。 経済企画庁で4年4ヶ月の年月をかけて精力的に行われた研究成果を一書にとりまとめたもの。好評発売中。


『貯蓄と資産形成』 岩波書店、1996年. ISBN4-00-009720-2

全国消費実態調査(1989年)等の個票データを分析した研究書。 『ストック・エコノミー』の続編。1996年度の日経・経済図書文化賞を受賞。 2004年1月復刊。好評発売中。


『未来への選択:21世紀<高齢化社会>を克服する社会システムへの変革』 ベネッセコーポレーション、1997年

著者は、ニクソン政権下で商務長官を務めたP.ピーターソン氏。 人口高齢化で米国はどうなるか、問題解決の具体的方法は何か、を簡潔かつ雄弁に論じた書物。日本の政財界でも大反響。 「日本への警鐘」(豊田章一郎氏)、「一級の警世の書」(小島明氏)、「核心をついた議論と提言」(出井伸之氏)、 「真心をこめて日本人に贈ってくれた貴重なメッセージ」(行天豊雄氏)等。好評発売中。


『年金改革の構想:大改正への最終提言』 日本経済新聞社、1992年

年金カット?65歳にならないともらえない?年金財政が破綻する? 「年金常識」の誤解を正し、現実的な改革案を1994年改革を念頭に置いて提案した書物。 1999年7月時点で在庫切れ。もよりの図書館でご覧になるか、古本屋でお求め下さい。